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Bono casino europa moon Mars' Small, Stressed Out Moon Is Painfully Relatable In New Photo
It is also the sixth-largest moon in the Solar System. Europa was discovered in by Galileo Galilei  and was named after Europathe legendary mother of King Minos of Crete and lover of Zeus the Greek equivalent of the Roman god Jupiter.
Slightly smaller than Earth's MoonEuropa is primarily made of silicate rock and has a water-ice crust  and probably an iron—nickel core. It has a tenuous atmosphere composed primarily of oxygen. Its surface is striated by cracks and streaks, whereas craters are relatively rare. In addition to Earth-bound telescope observations, Europa has been examined by a succession of space probe flybys, the first occurring in the early s.
Europa has the smoothest surface of any known solid object in the Solar System. This may be important in determining if Europa could be habitable. The Galileo mission, launched inprovides the bulk of current data on Europa.
No spacecraft has yet landed on Europa, although there have been several proposed exploration missions. Europa, bono casino europa moon with Jupiter's three other large bono casino europa moon, IoGanymedeand Callistobono casino europa moon discovered by Galileo Galilei on 8 January and possibly independently by Simon Marius.
However, in that observation, Galileo could not separate Io and Europa due to the low magnification of his telescope, so that the two were recorded as a single point of light. The following day, 8 January used as the discovery date for Europa by the IAUIo and Europa were seen bono casino europa moon the first time as separate bodies during Galileo's observations of the Jupiter system.
Europa is named after Europadaughter of the king of Tyrea Phoenician noblewoman in Greek mythology. Like all the Galilean satellites, Europa is named after a lover of Zeusthe Greek bono casino europa moon of Jupiter.
Europa was courted by Zeus and became the queen of Crete. The names fell out of favor for a considerable time and were not revived in bono casino europa moon use until the midth century. Inthe discovery of Amaltheawhose orbit lay closer to Jupiter than those of the Galilean moons, pushed Europa to the third position. The Voyager probes discovered three more inner satellites inso Europa is now considered Jupiter's sixth satellite, bono casino europa moon it is still sometimes referred to as Jupiter II.
With an eccentricity of only 0. Because of this, there is a sub-Jovian point on Europa's surface, from which Jupiter would appear to hang directly overhead. Europa's prime meridian is the line intersecting this point. Europa spins faster than it orbits, or at least did bono casino europa moon in the past. This suggests an asymmetry in internal mass distribution and that a layer of subsurface liquid separates the icy crust from the rocky interior.
The slight eccentricity of Europa's orbit, maintained by the gravitational disturbances from the other Galileans, causes Europa's sub-Jovian point to oscillate around a mean position. As Europa comes slightly nearer to Jupiter, Jupiter's gravitational attraction increases, causing Europa to elongate towards and away from it. As Europa moves slightly away from Bono casino europa moon, Jupiter's gravitational force decreases, causing Europa to relax back into a more spherical shape, and creating tides in its ocean.
The bono casino europa moon eccentricity of Europa is continuously pumped by its mean-motion resonance with Io. Scientists analyzing the unique cracks lining Europa found evidence bono casino europa moon that it likely spun around a please click for source axis at some point in time.
Bono casino europa moon correct, this would explain many of Europa's features. Europa's immense network of crisscrossing cracks serves язык bingo for money canada теперь a record of the stresses caused by massive tides in its global ocean. Europa's tilt could influence calculations of how much of its history is recorded in its frozen shell, how much heat is generated by tides in its ocean, and even how long the ocean has been liquid.
Its ice bono casino europa moon must stretch to accommodate these changes. When there is too much stress, it cracks. A tilt in Europa's axis could suggest that its cracks may be much more recent than previously thought.
The reason is that the bono casino europa moon of the spin pole may change by as much as a few degrees per day, completing one precession period over several months.
A tilt also could affect the estimates of the age of Europa's learn more here. Tidal forces are thought to generate the heat that keeps Europa's ocean liquid, and a tilt in the spin axis means that more heat is generated by tidal forces.
This heat helps the ocean to remain liquid longer. Scientists did not specify when the tilt would have occurred and measurements have not been made bono casino europa moon the tilt of Europa's axis.
Europa is check this out smaller than the Moon. Though by a wide margin the least massive of the Galilean satellites, it is nonetheless more massive than all known moons in the Solar System smaller than itself combined. Recent magnetic-field data from the Galileo orbiter showed that Europa has an induced magnetic field through interaction with Jupiter's, which suggests the presence of a subsurface conductive layer.
Europa is the smoothest known object in the Solar System, lacking large-scale features such as mountains and craters. There are few craters on Europa, because its surface is bono casino europa moon too active and therefore young.
Europa's most striking surface features are a series of dark streaks sind casinos fair the entire globe, called lineae English: Close examination shows that the edges of Europa's crust on either side of bono casino europa moon cracks have moved relative to each other.
These various fractures are thought to have been caused in large part by the tidal flexing exerted by Jupiter. Because Europa is tidally locked to Jupiter, and therefore always maintains the same approximate orientation towards Jupiter, the stress patterns should form a distinctive and predictable pattern. However, only the youngest of Europa's fractures conform to the predicted pattern; other fractures appear to occur at increasingly different orientations the older they are.
This could be explained if Europa's surface rotates slightly faster than its interior, an effect that article source possible due to the subsurface ocean mechanically decoupling Europa's surface from its rocky mantle and the effects of Jupiter's online slots no download with bonus tugging on Europa's outer ice crust.
The full revolution of the outer nj gambling websites shell relative to the interior of Europa occurs over a minimum of 12, years.
Together, the evidence for crustal spreading at bands  and convergence at other sites  marks the first bono casino europa moon for plate tectonics on any world other than Earth.
Other features check this out on Europa are circular and elliptical lenticulae Latin for "freckles". Many are domes, some are pits and some are smooth, dark spots. Others have a jumbled or rough texture. The dome tops look like pieces of the older plains around them, suggesting that the domes formed when the plains were pushed up from below.
One hypothesis states bono casino europa moon these lenticulae were formed by diapirs of warm ice rising up through the colder ice of the outer crust, much like magma chambers in Earth's crust. The rough, jumbled lenticulae called regions of "chaos"; for example, Conamara Chaos would then be formed from many small fragments of crust, embedded in hummocky, dark material, appearing like icebergs in a frozen sea.
Bono casino europa moon alternative hypothesis suggest that lenticulae are actually small areas of chaos and that the claimed pits, spots and domes are artefacts resulting from over-interpretation of early, low-resolution Galileo images. The implication is that the ice is too thin to support the convective diapir model of feature formation.
In Novembera team of researchers from the University of Texas at Austin and elsewhere presented evidence in the journal Nature suggesting that many " chaos terrain " features on Europa sit atop vast lakes of liquid water. Full confirmation of the lakes' existence will мне online casino promotion malaysia Ма-ма a space mission designed to probe the ice shell either physically or indirectly, for example, using radar.
Scientists' consensus is that a layer of liquid water exists beneath Europa's surface, and that heat from tidal flexing allows the subsurface ocean to remain liquid. Galileo imaging team members argue for the existence of a subsurface ocean from analysis of Voyager and Galileo images.
This interpretation is controversial. Most geologists who have studied Europa favor what is commonly called click the following article "thick ice" model, in which the ocean bono casino europa moon rarely, if ever, bono casino europa moon interacted with the present surface.
The thin-ice model suggests that Europa's ice shell may be only a few kilometers bono casino europa moon. However, most planetary scientists conclude that this model considers only those topmost layers of Europa's crust that behave elastically when affected by Jupiter's tides.
One example is flexure analysis, in which Europa's crust is modeled as a plane or sphere weighted and flexed by a heavy load. If the ice shell of Europa is really only a few kilometers thick, this "thin ice" model would mean that regular contact of the liquid interior with the surface could occur through open ridges, causing the formation of areas of chaotic terrain.
The Galileo orbiter found that Europa has a weak magnetic momentbono casino europa moon is induced by the varying part of the Jovian magnetic bono casino europa moon. The field strength at the magnetic equator about nT created by this magnetic moment is bono casino europa moon more info the strength of Bono casino europa moon field and six times the value of Callisto's.
The most plausible candidate for this role is a large subsurface ocean of liquid saltwater. Since the Voyager spacecraft flew past Europa inbono casino europa moon have worked to understand the composition of the reddish-brown material that coats fractures and other geologically youthful features on Europa's surface. Another hypothesis for the colored regions is that they are composed of abiotic organic compounds collectively called tholins. In order to generate colored tholins on Europa there must be a source of materials carbon, nitrogen, and water and a source of energy to make the reactions occur.
Impurities in the water ice crust of Europa are presumed both to emerge from the interior as cryovolcanic events that resurface the body, and to accumulate from space as interplanetary dust. Tidal heating occurs through the tidal friction and tidal flexing processes caused by tidal acceleration: Ocean tides online casino job description converted to heat by frictional losses in the oceans and their interaction with the solid bottom and with the top ice crust.
In lateit was suggested Jupiter may keep Europa's oceans warm by generating large planetary tidal waves on Europa because of its small but non-zero obliquity. This generates so-called Rossby waves that travel quite slowly, at just a few kilometers per day, but can generate significant kinetic energy. For the current axial tilt estimate of 0. Tidal flexing kneads Europa's interior and ice shell, which becomes a source of heat.
Experiments and ice modeling published inindicate that tidal flexing dissipation can generate one order of magnitude more heat in Europa's ice than scientists had previously assumed. How do casinos make money on poker tables addition to tidal heating, the interior of Europa could also be heated by the decay of radioactive material radiogenic heating within the rocky mantle.
The Hubble Space Telescope acquired an image of Europa in that was interpreted to be a plume of water vapour erupting from near its south pole.
The tidal bono casino europa moon are about 1, times stronger than the Moon 's effect on Earth. The only other moon in the Solar System exhibiting water vapor plumes is Enceladus. Observations with the Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph of the Hubble Space Telescopefirst described inrevealed that Europa has a thin atmosphere composed mostly of molecular oxygen O 2.
Unlike the oxygen in Earth's atmosphereEuropa's is not of biological origin. The surface-bounded atmosphere forms through radiolysisthe dissociation of molecules through radiation. These chemical components are then adsorbed and " sputtered " into the atmosphere. The same radiation also creates collisional ejections of these products from the surface, and the balance of these two processes forms an atmosphere. Molecular hydrogen never reaches the surface, as it is light enough to escape Europa's surface gravity.
Observations of the surface have revealed that some of the molecular oxygen produced by radiolysis is not ejected from the surface. Because bono casino europa moon surface may interact with the subsurface ocean considering the geological discussion abovethis molecular oxygen may make its way to the ocean, where it could aid here biological processes.
The molecular hydrogen that escapes Europa's gravity, along with atomic and molecular oxygen, forms a gas torus in the vicinity of Europa's orbit around Jupiter. This "neutral cloud" has been detected by both the Cassini and Galileo spacecraft, and has a greater content number of atoms and molecules than the neutral cloud surrounding Jupiter's inner moon Io.
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