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Operating with a transmitter power output of 50, watts, the station can be heard during daylight hours throughout central and western Pennsylvania, along with portions of the adjacent states of Ohio, West Virginia and New York, plus the Canadian province of Ontario.
Its nighttime signal covers much of eastern North America. KDKA has described itself as the "Pioneer Broadcasting Station of the World",  and traces its beginning — initially using the temporarily assigned "special amateur" call sign of 8ZZ — to its broadcast of the Harding-Cox presidential election results on the evening of November 2, Although KDKA's history has been extensively reviewed, there are some inconsistencies between accounts, leading one researcher to note: During the war, Westinghouse received government contracts to develop radio transmitters and receivers for military use.
They used recently developed vacuum tube equipment that was capable of audio communication. Previous spark gap transmitters could only be used to transmit the dots-and-dashes of Morse code. At the time of the entry of the United States into World War I in Aprilthe government ordered all civilian radio stations off the air.
However, during the conflict Westinghouse received permission to operate research radio transmitters located at its East Pittsburgh plant and at the home of one of its lead engineers, Frank Conradin nearby Wilkinsburg. With the end of drake online casino promo code war, the government contracts were canceled.
However, Westinghouse moved aggressively to establish itself as a national and international provider of radio communication. The effort to establish Westinghouse's radio industry source was led by company vice president H. However, because of the competitive advantage RCA had in international and marine communications, initially there appeared to be limited opportunities available to Drake online casino promo code. Although it would gain its fame as a broadcasting station, KDKA actually originated as part of a project to establish private radiotelegraph links between Westinghouse's East Pittsburgh factory and its other facilities, to avoid the business expense drake online casino promo code paying http://pay.slovologos.info/best-online-roulette-winning-system.php telegraph and telephone lines.
In Septembera newspaper report noted that "a new high-power station, to operate under a special or commercial license, is being drake online casino promo code at the Westinghouse plant in East Pittsburgh. It will be used to establish communication between the East Pittsburgh plant and the company branch factories at Cleveland, O.
Best paying online slot game application, signed by H. Edwards in Detroit, who forwarded it to Washington, and on October 27, Westinghouse was issued a Limited Commercial station license, serialwith the identifying call letters of KDKA. Neither KDKA's drake online casino promo code application, nor drake online casino promo code resulting license, mentioned broadcasting, only that the station was to be used for radiotelegraphic communication with stations located at the Westinghouse facilities in Cleveland, Newark and Springfield, plus station WCG in Brooklyn, New York, which was operated by the recently acquired International Radio Telegraph.
At this time, radio stations in космоплаватели top 10 casinos in michigan Это United States were regulated by the Department of Commerce's Bureau of Navigation. Beginning with the introduction of licensing in latethe standard practice had been to assign call letters starting with "W" to radio stations in the eastern United States. However, KDKA happened to receive its assignment during a short period during which land stations were http://pay.slovologos.info/online-roulette-canada.php issued call letters from a sequential block of "K" call letters that had been previously been assigned only to ship stations.
Although the original policy was restored a few months later, KDKA was permitted to keep its non-standard call sign. Shortly after beginning the process of setting up KDKA to be used for point-to-point communication, a series of events occurred which resulted in it free online slots paddy power becoming a drake online casino promo code station, which would overshadow its original role.
He used the knowledge gained during the wartime period to upgrade his station to begin making audio transmissions, and became well known among radio amateurs for his experimental activities. Davis saw this advertisement and immediately recognized the "limitless opportunity" of adding radio receivers to the lines of appliances sold to the general public by Westinghouse,  and in order to create demand for the receivers, he decided that Westinghouse should provide regular programming as an incentive for persons considering a purchase.
Davis held a staff meeting with his "radio cabinet" and asked them to have a station operational in time to broadcast the presidential and local election returns on November 2, Election return broadcasts had been a tradition since shortly after the development of radio, although due to technical limitations initially they could drake online casino promo code be done using Morse code, which greatly limited the potential audiences.
Westinghouse's preparations included the construction of a shack and antenna system deposit 10 play with 60 betfred the roof of the nine story K Building at the East Pittsburgh Works in Turtle Creek, Pennsylvania.
He and Donald G. Little had primary responsibility for constructing a watt vacuum-tube transmitter. A telephoned temporary authorization was received to operate under the call sign of 8ZZ. Although the pre-broadcast publicity and contemporary accounts stated that 8ZZ was the call sign used drake online casino promo code the election night broadcast — for example, in L.
Krumm, Westinghouse's Superintendent of Radio Operations, referred to Westinghouse's "station at East Pittsburgh, now known as KDKA, the matured successor of 8ZZ"  — later reviews, including a re-creation of the original broadcast, often Патрика first deposit bonus casino australia вступив state that the KDKA call sign was used during the debut broadcast.
Extensive drake online casino promo code publicity by Westinghouse heralded the upcoming broadcast, both among technically knowledgeable amateur radio enthusiasts, plus, through the organization of public listening sites, toward a more general audience of potential future radio receiver purchasers. Promotional announcements described the offering as a joint effort between Westinghouse and its International Radio Telegraph subsidiary,  and A.
Braun, drake online casino promo code International Radio Telegraph officer who was also the president of the Pittsburgh Post and Pittsburgh Sunmade the drake online casino promo code for his newspapers to provide election results to the station.
In the days before November 2nd a series of test transmissions were made to check the equipment. The announcer for the election night broadcast was a publicity department drake online casino promo code member, Leo Rosenberg. Frank Conrad stood by at his home station,  ready to take over using his 8XK transmitter if the East Pittsburgh transmitter failed, but the effort was successful, with one newspaper report noting that: The service was utilized by many amateurs to entertain gatherings at their various stations.
Between announcements of the returns drake online casino promo code music was transmitted, which added much to the entertainment. This Westinghouse broadcast was not unique — that evening at least two other stations made audio transmissions of election returns, one a learn more here arrangement made by the Saint Louis Post-Dispatch in conjunction with W. Woods of the Benwoods Company, "manufacturers and distributors of wireless outfits",  and the other a broadcast by the Detroit News' "Detroit News Radiophone" station.
After initially operating under the call sign 8ZZ — apparently for just a few days, although the chronology is not completely clear — the station switched to identifying itself as KDKA. Through the next month semiweekly broadcasts were made,  until December 21, when the station embarked on an ambitious daily schedule,   initially for about an hour each evening.
Reflecting the December launch, the January 1, debut issue of Westinghouse's Radio Broadcasting News included the reference "Fifty-fourth week broadcasting". On August 1, the transmitter was upgraded from to watts, and two months later saw an additional doubling, to 1, watts.
The election night broadcast was transmitted подумав, online casino script download будет a wavelength of meters kHz.
Later publicity stated that KDKA was now broadcasting on meters kHzand in the fall of all the Westinghouse broadcasting stations began using meters kHz.
In the United States there were no formal standards defining a broadcasting station until December 1,when the Department of Commerce issued a regulation specifying that stations making broadcasts intended for the general public now had to hold a Limited Commercial license that authorized operation on or meters or kHz. As a pioneer in radio broadcasting, KDKA struggled in particular with studio drake online casino promo code, especially for large groups of performers.
An early attempt to broadcast a concert by Westinghouse employees from a local auditorium found that the sensitive microphones picked up echoes from the walls, causing severe distortion. Moving the performers outdoors eliminated the echoing, so a tent was erected on the drake online casino promo code roof, and for a time concerts were performed from this location.
Eventually the tent was blown down slot game a storm, so it was moved indoors, where drake online casino promo code was found the tent material helped deaden the echoes.
This led to modern studio design, including walls covered with noise-absorbing material, initially "monks cloth" which turned out to be a fancy name for burlap. Early programming often featured live musical performances by drake online casino promo code band composed of Westinghouse employees. The station provided its first remote broadcast on January 2,airing a religious service from Calvary Episcopal Church. The Calvary services soon became a regular Sunday evening offering, and were continued until Initially KDKA had to share its meter assignment with the other broadcasting stations that were established in the region, until May 15,when the Department of Commerce expanded the broadcasting frequency assignments into a band from to kHz.
InKDKA began simulcasting its broadcasts on shortwaveand for a while used this as a link for transmitting its programs for rebroadcast by station KFHX in Hastings, Nebraska, as part of an unsuccessful experiment to use shortwave signals instead of telephone lines to establish network connections. The original financing plan, of using the revenues from radio receiver sales to pay station costs, proved to be insufficient for a number of reasons.
Additional expenses included the requirement to pay royalties to musical composers, plus the fact http://pay.slovologos.info/best-payout-online-casino-south-africa.php, unlike the amateur Westinghouse Company staff performers, professional acts started to expect to be paid in something more tangible than publicity. On the revenue side, Westinghouse found that drake online casino promo code didn't have the near-monopoly for selling vacuum-tube receivers that it expected it had gotten through the purchase of the commercial rights to the Armstrong regenerative patent.
Armstrong had previously sold "amateur and experimental" rights to around 17 small firms, which also began selling receivers to the general public. Westinghouse sued on the grounds that this went beyond their rights, but lost, which resulted in the formation of a series of major competitors, including Crosley and Zenith. Running over-the-air commercials was an obvious financing alternative, but initially Westinghouse officials were soundly against the idea, contending that it would destroy the listening experience.
McQuiston, from the Westinghouse Department of Publicity, declared that "if advertising were permitted, it goes without saying that all the good work that has been done in giving valuable information and pleasant entertainment for the people would be destroyed".
Davis suggested that the best solution was "five or six large, well-located and powerful stations" which "could be licensed, protected and organized KDKA became affiliated with the Blue network, and with this change began selling airtime: A general frequency reassignment under the provisions of newly formed Federal Radio Commission 's General Order 40effective November 11,led to KDKA being assigned to the "clear channel" frequency of kHz. On January 1,the station inaugurated new studio facilities located in the William Penn Hotel and on June 26 relocated drake online casino promo code Master Control facilities to the drake online casino promo code. From tothe Farm Hour was built around farm reports along with music by Slim Bryant and his Wildcats, who eventually became the top local country music act for slots money iphone real the Pittsburgh area.
Special programming included ongoing coverage of the St. Patrick's Day flood that submerged downtown Pittsburgh as far as Wood Street. In NBC was compelled by the U. Lawrence as Pittsburgh Mayor, as well as the presidential and gubernatorial inaugurations. In the s, Ed Shaughency was moved from mornings to the afternoon, losing his partner, Rainbow Elmer Walters in the process.
Cordic and his group played a small amount of music, but primarily provided entertainment through skits, including recurring characters such as "Louie The Garbageman" and space alien "Omicron".
The s saw a shift to more local programming, as the national radio shows were moving to television. For some years announcer Sterling Yates, also a musician, played hip, progressive jazz on a Sunday morning broadcast. Unlike most talk shows, callers were not heard, with the couple taking turns relaying the callers' information. In newsman Bill Steinbach began his year career at the station — within 10 years he was the anchor of the award-winning to-6 news program.
However, the station's sound remained much more conservative than most Top 40 stations. Inthe drake online casino promo code began regular broadcasts of Pirate baseball games, a partnership drake online casino promo code ended inbut was restarted in when KDKA-FM began carrying the games. One of Bogut's most memorable contributions to KDKA was his introduction to Western Pennsylvania of the word Farkleberrywhich is now a staple of the annual Children's Hospital fund-raising campaign.
In drake online casino promo code news reporting, the station pioneered with "on the scene" reports of Mike Levine, the peripatetic former newspaper man whose mobile-unit broadcasts from Tri-State-area covering fires, floods, bank robberies, and coal mine disasters won numerous journalism awards.
His nightly "Contact" show later "Open Mike" was KDKA's initial venture into the news-based talk radio format that would become the station's basic offering. In the summer ofKDKA debuted overnight talk with Jack Wheeler, launching an anything-goes talk show that ran from midnight to 6 a. By the early s, KDKA adopted more of an adult contemporary format, consisting of rock and roll hits of the s plus soft rock, with artists such as AmericaThe CarpentersDoobie BrothersPaul SimonDawnand Neil Diamond becoming core offerings.
The morning show featured less music and an increased news and commercial content. InDrake online casino promo code Fox debuted as the 6 to 9 pm talk host. By now, KDKA had become a full service adult contemporary radio station. Innewsman Fred Honsberger began working at KDKA, and drake online casino promo code on to host a successful evening talk show drake online casino promo code a top-rated http://pay.slovologos.info/casino-theme-party.php drive program.
ByPintek joined the KDKA News staff and later became one of the station's most popular talk hosts, although he was let go at the end of as part of a programming overhaul. Throughout the s, KDKA drake online casino promo code an information and news intensive adult contemporary music format, playing four to six songs per hour at drive times and 10 to 12 songs an hour during middays drake online casino promo code weekends.
At night, the station continued its talk format. The station won four Associated Press Joe Snyder awards for outstanding overall news service in Pennsylvania. The changeover occurred at noon on April 10,when Larry Richert played the last song aired web best casinos a regular part click KDKA programming:
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