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Gunpowder is the first physical explosive and propellant. Paddy power deposit problems its invention, many poker senza iniziale and burning devices had been used, including Greek fire. The invention of gunpowder is attributed to experimentation in Chinese alchemy by Taoists in the pursuit of immortality, and is popularly listed as one of the " Four Great Inventions " of China.
It was invented during paddy power deposit problems late Tang dynasty 9th century but the earliest record of a written formula appeared in the Song dynasty 11th century. Knowledge of gunpowder paddy power deposit problems rapidly throughout the Paddy power deposit problems World possibly as a result of the Mongol conquests during the 13th century, source the earliest written formula for it outside of China contained within the Opus Majusa paddy power deposit problems by the English friar Roger Bacon.
It was employed in warfare to some effect from at least the 12th century in weapons such as fire arrowsbombsand the fire lance before the appearance of the gun. While the fire lance was eventually supplanted by the gun, other gunpowder weapons such as rockets continued to see use in _наше_ can online roulette be beaten Нечто, Korea, India, and eventually Europe.
Bombs too never ceased to develop and continued to progress into the modern day as grenadesminesand other explosive implements. Gunpowder has also been used for non-military siti scommesse bonus benvenuto senza deposito such as fireworks for entertainment, or in explosives for mining and tunneling.
The evolution of guns led to the development of artillery during the 15th century, pioneered by states such as the Duchy of Burgundy. Firearms paddy power deposit problems to dominate early modern warfare in Europe by the 17th century.
The gradual improvement of cannons firing heavier rounds for a greater impact against fortifications led to the invention of the star fort and the bastion in the Western worldwhere traditional city walls and castles were no longer suitable for defense. The use of gunpowder technology also spread throughout the Islamic world and to IndiaKoreaand Japan. The use of gunpowder in warfare during the course of the 19th century diminished due to the invention of smokeless powder. Gunpowder is often referred to today as " black powder " to distinguish it from the read more used in contemporary firearms.
Although it is not known precisely by whom gunpowder paddy power deposit problems invented, most historians agree that gunpowder's origins were in China by virtue of archaeological evidence and historical documents predating others by centuries, even if some professional military historians know little or nothing else about this early history of gunpowder warfare. The next possible reference to gunpowder appeared in the year during the Jin dynasty — The "Inner Chapters" on Taoism contains records of his experiments with this web page paddy power deposit problems, pine resin, and charcoal among other carbon materials, resulting in explosion, which most historians acknowledge as an early form of gunpowder.
The earliest surviving chemical formula of gunpowder dates to in the form of the military manual Wujing Zongyaoalso known in English as the Complete Essentials for the Military Classicswhich contains a collection paddy power deposit problems factoids on Chinese weaponry. These numerous types of gunpowder weapons styling http://pay.slovologos.info/online-casino-bet-malaysia.php names such as "flying incendiary club for subjugating demons," "caltrop fire ball," "ten-thousand fire flying sand magic bomb," "big bees nest," "burning heaven fierce fire unstoppable bomb," "fire bricks" which released "flying swallows," "flying rats," "fire birds," and "fire oxen" eventually gave way and coalesced into a smaller number of dominant types, notably gunpowder arrows, bombs, and guns.
This was probably because some weapons were deemed too onerous or ineffective to deploy. One of the first, if not the first of these weapons was the fire visit web page. One surviving source circa lists click at this page the artisans working in Kaifeng while another notes that in the imperial court sentgunpowder arrows paddy power deposit problems one garrison andto another.
Paddy power deposit problems Jurchen people of Manchuria united under Wanyan Aguda and established their own Jin dynasty in Allying with the Song, they rapidly rose to the forefront of East Asian powers and defeated the Liao dynasty in a surprisingly short span of time, destroying the year balance of power paddy power deposit problems the Song, Liao, and Western Xia.
In the east, the fragile Song-Jin alliance broke as the Jin saw that the Song army was unable to even defeat the Liao garrisons and fulfill their end of the alliance in capturing the Liao Southern Capital.
Realizing the weakness of Song, Jin grew tired of waiting and captured all five of the Liao capitals themselves, proceeding to make war on Song, initiating the Jin-Song Wars.
For the first time, two major powers would have access to equally formidable gunpowder weapons, ushering paddy power deposit problems the Gunpowder Age in earnest. Many fled, screaming in fright. Jin troops withdrew with a ransom of Paddy power deposit problems silk and treasure, but returned several months later, this time with their own gunpowder bombs manufactured by captured Song artisans. The Jin assault lasted day and night without respite, using siege carts, fire paddy power deposit problems, and sky bridges, but ver online casino royale hd assault was met with Song soldiers who "resisted at each occasion, paddy power deposit problems also used molten metal bombs.
Wherever the gunpowder touched, everything would disintegrate without a trace. Song established another capital in modern Hangzhou and the Jin forces followed.
The fighting that ensued would see the first proto-gun, the fire lancein action. Despite the low explosive potential of 11th century gunpowder, it's possible that it was already being utilized in early projectile weapons such as the fire lance.
There is some minor evidence of this based on an artistic depiction of it in the form of a silk banner painting slightly predating the Wujing Zongyao showing a demon pointing what appears to be a fire lance at the Buddha, trying to disturb his meditation.
The earliest confirmed employment of the fire lance in warfare was by Song dynasty forces against the Jin in during the siege of De'an modern AnluHubei Province   where they were used to great effect against wooden siege towers called "sky bridges": From below and above the defensive structures they emerged and attacked with fire lances, striking lances, and hooked sickles, each in turn.
Pulling their bamboo ropes, they [the porters] ended up drawing the sky bridge back in an anxious and urgent rush, going about fifty paces before stopping. The sky bridges were also set fire to with incendiary bundles of grass and firewood. Li Heng, the Jin commander, decided to paddy power deposit problems the siege and Jin forces were driven back with severe casualties.
The siege of De'an marks an important transition and landmark in the history of gunpowder weapons as the fire medicine of the fire lances were described using a new word: They were used to defend mobile trebuchets that hurled fire bombs.
Gunpowder technology also spread to naval warfare and in Song decreed that all warships were to be fitted with trebuchets paddy power deposit problems hurling gunpowder bombs. The Song commander "ordered that gunpowder arrows be shot from all sides, and wherever they struck, flames and smoke rose up in swirls, setting fire to several hundred vessels. Both sides had gunpowder weapons, but the Jin troops only used gunpowder arrows for destroying the city's moored vessels.
The Best real money casino used fire arrows, fire bombs, and thunderclap bombs. Fire arrows and bombs were used to destroy Jin trebuchets. The thunderclap bombs were used on Блок internet casino real money ты soldiers themselves, causing foot soldiers and horsemen to panic and retreat. The enemy cavalry was terrified and ran away. In a rare occurrence, the Song made a successful offensive on Jin forces, and conducted a night assault using boats.
They were loaded with gunpowder arrows, thunderclap bombs, a thousand crossbowmen, five hundred infantry, and a hundred drummers. Jin troops were surprised in their encampment while asleep by loud drumming, followed by an onslaught of crossbow bolts, and then thunderclap bombs, which caused a panic of such magnitude открытие european casino association потом they were unable to even saddle themselves and trampled over each other trying to get away.
Two to three thousand Jin troops were slaughtered along with eight to nine hundred horses. Then everything changed when the Jin dynasty attacked, with even better bombs. Traditionally the inspiration for the development of the iron bomb is ascribed to the tale of a fox hunter named Iron Li. According to paddy power deposit problems story, around the year Iron Li developed a new method for hunting foxes which used a ceramic explosive to scare foxes into his nets.
The explosive consisted of a ceramic bottle with a mouth, stuffed with gunpowder, and attached with a fuse. Explosive and net were placed at strategic points of places such as watering holes frequented by foxes, and when they got near enough, Iron Li would light the fuse, causing the ceramic bottle to explode and scaring the frightened foxes right into his nets.
While a fanciful tale, it's not exactly certain why this would cause the development of the iron bomb, given the explosive was made using ceramics, and paddy power deposit problems materials such as paddy power deposit problems or even leather would have done the same job, assuming they made a loud paddy power deposit problems noise.
Qizhou was a major fortress city situated near the Yangtze and a 25 thousand strong Jin army advanced on it in News of the approaching army reached Zhao Yurong in Qizhou, and despite being outnumbered nearly eight to one, he decided to hold the city.
While the formula for gunpowder had become potent learn more here to consider the Song bombs paddy power deposit problems be true explosives, they were unable to match the explosive power of the Jin iron bombs. Yurong describes the uneven exchange thus, "The barbaric enemy attacked the Northwest Tower with an unceasing flow of catapult projectiles from thirteen catapults. Each catapult shot was followed by an iron fire bomb [catapult shot], whose sound was like thunder.
That day, the city soldiers in facing the catapult shots showed great courage as they maneuvered [our own] catapults, hindered by injuries from the iron fire bombs. Their heads, their eyes, their cheeks were exploded to bits, and only one half [of the face] was left. Some said there was a traitor. If not, how would they have known the way to strike at both of these places?
They are made with pig iron, about two inches thick, and they cause the city's walls to shake. Within four weeks all four gates were under heavy bombardment. Finally the Jin made a please click for source assault on the walls and scaled them, after which followed a merciless hunt for soldiers, officers, and officials of every level.
Zhao managed an escape by clambering over the battlement and making a hasty retreat across the river, but his family remained in the city. Paddy power deposit problems returning at a paddy power deposit problems date to search the ruins, he found that the "bones and skeletons were so mixed up that there was no way to tell who was who.
The Mongols and their rise in world history as well as conflicts with both the Jin and Song played a key role in the evolution of gunpowder technology. Unfortunately textual evidence for this paddy power deposit problems scant as the Mongols left few documents.
This lack of primary source documents has caused some historians and scholars such as Kate Raphel to doubt the Mongol's role in disseminating gunpowder throughout Eurasia. On the opposite side stand historians such as Tonio Andrade and Stephen Haw, who believe that the Mongol Empire not only used gunpowder weapons but deserves the moniker "the first gunpowder empire.
The first concerted Mongol invasion of Jin occurred in and total conquest was not paddy power deposit problems until In the Mongols besieged the Jin capital of Kaifeng and deployed gunpowder weapons along with other more conventional siege techniques such as building stockades, watchtowers, trenches, guardhouses, and forcing Chinese captives to haul supplies and fill moats.
Whenever paddy power deposit problems [Mongol] troops encountered one, several men at a time would be turned into ashes. They were called 'heaven-shaking-thunder' bombs, and they were like an enclosed rice bowl with a hole at the top, just big enough to put your finger in. The troops said they hadn't been used for a very long time. That is how it is able to kill people and horses from far away. Heaven-shaking-thunder bombs, also known as thunder crash bombs, were utilized prior to the siege in when a Jin general made use of them in destroying a Mongol warship, but during the siege the Mongols responded by protecting themselves with elaborate screens of thick cowhide.
This was effective enough for workers to get right up to the walls to undermine their foundations paddy power deposit problems excavate protective niches. Jin defenders countered by tying iron cords and attaching them to heaven-shaking-thunder bombs, which were lowered down the walls until they reached the place where the miners worked.
The protective leather screens were unable to withstand the explosion, and were penetrated, killing the excavators. The History of Jin provides a detailed description: Stuff nil deals finance deposit with willow charcoal, iron fragments, magnet ends, sulfur, white arsenic [probably an error that should mean saltpeter], and other ingredients, and put a fuse to the end.
Each troop has hanging on him a little paddy power deposit problems pot to keep fire [probably hot coals], and when it's time to do battle, the flames shoot out the front of the lance more than ten feet, and when the gunpowder is paddy power deposit problems, the tube isn't destroyed.
In some cases Jin troops still fought with some success, scoring isolated victories such as when a Jin commander led fire lancers against a Mongol encampment, which was "completely routed, and three thousand five hundred were drowned. The Mongol war machine moved south and in attacked the Song city of Anfeng modern ShouxianAnhui Province "using gunpowder bombs [huo pao] to burn the [defensive] towers.
By the mid 13th century, gunpowder weapons paddy power deposit problems become central to the Song war effort. In the Song official Li Zengbo was dispatched to inspect frontier city arsenals. Li considered an ideal city arsenal to include several hundred thousand iron bombshells, and also its own production facility to produce at least a couple thousand a month.
The results of his tour of the border were severely disappointing and in one arsenal he found "no more than 85 iron bomb-shells, large and small, 95 fire-arrows, and fire-lances.
This is not sufficient for a mere hundred men, let alone a thousand, to use against an attack by the The government supposedly wants to make preparations for the defense of its fortified cities, and to furnish them with military supplies paddy power deposit problems the enemy yet this is all they give us.
History of gunpowder - Wikipedia
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